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India can be divided into three main topographic regions; the Himalayan mountain system, on the north; the Northern Plains, drained by the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers in north-central India; and Peninsular India, in the south.

The HIMALAYAS form parts of India's borders with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tibet in the west and with Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet in the east. The region is topographically complex and divided into prominent elongated valleys and mountain ranges. The highest mountains are in the KARAKORAM RANGE, where more than 30 other peaks rise above 7,300 m (24,000 ft). South of the Karakoram are the Great Himalayas, a range with extensive areas over 5,500 m (18,000 ft); sandwiched between the two major ranges is the narrow valley of the Upper Indus River. Southwest of the Great Himalayas and between them and the lower front ranges of the mountain system is the 160-km (100-mi) long Vale of Kashmir, which is located on the upper Jhelum River and focuses on the town of SRINAGAR. To the east, the mountains form most of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh.

The Northern Plains are part of a vast lowland extending across the subcontinent from Pakistan in the west to Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) in the east. The plains are bordered on the north by the foothills of the Himalayas; south of the Bramaputra basin are the Khasi Hills and Shillong Plateau; and south of the Indo-Gangetic Plain rise the uplands of Peninsular India. In India, this lowland has a length of about 1,600 km (1,000 mi) from east to west and a width of about 320 km (200 mi). It is drained in the west by the Beas and Sutlej rivers, which are tributaries of the Indus; in the east by the Brahmaputra; and in the rest of India by the Ganges and its many tributaries and distributaries. The Northern Plains are floored by alluvial deposits derived mainly from the Himalayas and deposited over the lowland by the major rivers.

Peninsular India is geologically the oldest part of India. Ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the region, but basaltic lavas (igneous rocks) cover parts of the DECCAN PLATEAU. Topographically, the surface of the peninsula is tilted down toward the east and north, forming a belt of prominent uplands along the western edge. These uplands, reaching more than 2,500 m (8,200 ft), include the Western Ghats (see GHATS) and the Nilgiri Hills. The northern edge of the peninsula, although lower, is also prominent and rises south of the Northern Plains to form the Aravalli Range in the west and the jungle-covered Chota Nagpur Plateau in the east. Only a very narrow coastal plain lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea; more extensive plains, including the deltas of the Cauveri, Krishna, Mahanadi, and Damodar rivers, line the east coast.

Soils

The four principal soil types in India are mountain (or immature) soils, alluvial soils, regur soils, and red soils. Mountain soils are found in upland areas too steep for regular soil development; they range in texture from sandy in the drier Aravallis to clays in the wetter Himalayas. Alluvial soils cover the broad floodplains of the Indo-Gangetic valley and the Brahmaputra basin, the smaller river valleys and deltas of the peninsula, and the coastal lowlands; these soils, ranging from sandy loams to clays, are generally fertile, but are sometimes saline when improperly irrigated. The regur soils are rich, fertile black soils found in the sections of the peninsula covered with basaltic lavas and also in some eastern and southern regions. Red soils, which cover most of the peninsula, are less fertile, as are patches of nutrient-deficient lateritic soils.

Climate

The Rajasthan Desert in northwestern India has a semiarid climate, but the majority of India has a tropical monsoonal climate associated with a wind reversal between summer and winter. In summer low-pressure areas develop over the subcontinent as the land heats up, and summer monsoon winds are drawn onto the land from the surrounding seas. These moisture-laden winds release heavy rainfall when they reach the coast or are forced to rise over mountains; summers (mid-June to mid-September) are accordingly wet and hot, with temperatures between 27 deg and 32 deg C (81 deg and 90 deg F). In winter high pressures build over the land; winds then blow predominantly from the land to the sea, and winter in India (mid-December to mid-March) is predominantly dry and cool, with temperatures averaging 21 deg C (70 deg F). Two transitional seasons occur before and after the summer rains. A hot and dry pre-monsoonal season lasts from mid-March to mid-June and is associated with temperatures between 38 deg and 43 deg C (100 deg and 110 deg F). A transitional post monsoonal season occurs as the monsoons retreat (mid-September to mid-December) and is associated with light and sporadic rainfall and temperatures around 25 deg C (77 deg F). Cooler, more temperate conditions prevail in the Himalayas and decrease with altitude.

Precipitation ranges from almost zero in the THAR desert to 10,870 mm (428 in) annually in the Shillong Plateau, which is one of the wettest places in the world. Rainfall is generally heaviest in coastal and highland areas and diminishes inland. Amounts vary widely from year to year, especially in inland areas, and dry years often cause widespread crop failures. Crop damage may also occur on a smaller scale in parts of eastern India when "nor-westers" and Bay of Bengal cyclones strike the land, most often in May and early June, in the form of tornadoes, whirlwinds, hailstorms, and heavy downpours.

Drainage

The principal river in India is the GANGES (Ganga), which rises in the Himalayas and flows across the Northern Plains in a broad, meandering course to reach the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Most of the Ganges reaches the sea through multiple distributaries in Bangladesh; its principal distributary in India is the Hooghly River, which flows through Calcutta. The major tributaries of the Ganges are the BRAHMAPUTRA, which joins the Ganges near its mouth in Bangladesh, and the YAMUNA, Gogra, Gandak, and Kosi rivers. In northern India the major drainage basin is that of the INDUS River; although most of this basin lies in Pakistan, the headwaters of the Indus and two of its major tributaries, the SUTLEJ and the Beas, are partly in India and are used heavily for irrigation. The principal rivers of Peninsular India are the Chambal, Son, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Cauveri, Narmada, and Tapi. Principal lakes include the Chilka, Kolleru, Pulicat, Lonar, Pushkar, and Wular. A coastal swamp, the Sundarban, fringes the Ganges delta. The Rann of Kutch is a saline swamp in northwestern India and southern Pakistan, off the Arabian Sea coast.

The annual regime of river flow in India is controlled by climatic conditions. Rivers flowing from the Himalayas experience two high-water seasons, one in early summer caused by snow melt in the mountains, and one in late summer caused by runoff from monsoonal rains. Other rivers experience high waters only during the monsoon, followed by periods of diminished flow, when many of the smaller rivers run dry. To counteract this marked periodicity of river flow, groundwater wells and tube wells are widely used for irrigation in the Northern Plains and peninsular delta regions; and many dams have been built on the major rivers to regulate river flow and distribute water for an intricate system of irrigation canals.

Vegetation and Animal Life

Seven vegetation regions are found in continental India, although the natural cover has been modified by several millennia of human occupation. In the western Himalayas vegetation changes with altitude from temperate deciduous forests at low elevations through coniferous forests to Alpine vegetation above the tree line. The eastern Himalayas have more extensive deciduous forest cover. In northeastern India, east of Bangladesh, vegetation cover ranges from tropical evergreen in the wet lowlands to temperate deciduous forest in drier and cooler areas. The semiarid Punjab-Rajasthan-Gujarat region mainly supports scrub vegetation cover. In the heavily cultivated Ganges Plain, islands of deciduous trees and tuft grasses remain among the agricultural fields. The peninsular uplands support tropical monsoonal deciduous and scrub forest, while the wetter slopes of the Western Ghats support a tropical monsoonal deciduous forest, with an evergreen cover in some areas.

India's fauna includes about 500 species of mammals and more than 2,000 species of birds. The elephant, Indian bison, rhinoceros, and tiger live mainly in the wet, forested regions; the Himalayan markhor (ibex) and lion live in the Gir forest. Seven national parks, 135 wild life sanctuaries, and 24 zoological parks are concerned with conservation of wildlife.

Resources

India has a rich and varied mineral-resource base. Coal and iron ore are abundant and located close to each other in the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the eastern peninsula. Manganese, lignite, copper, bauxite, kyanite, fire clays, mica, and limestone are found in large quantities. Petroleum occurs offshore from Bombay and in Assam and Gujarat, but is not present in large amounts.

India also has vast land resources. Of the total land area, 20.5% is under forest; 41.6% is sown with crops; 7.6% is left fallow; 3.9% is in permanent pasture; and 1.5% supports permanent crops such as tea and fruit trees. Irrigation is of great importance to Indian farmers. India has the potential to irrigate 1.07 million sq km (410,000 sq mi), but only 43% of this land is currently irrigated. Canals from the major rivers provide water to 40.9% of the irrigated area; wells provide water for 40.7%; and tanks provide water to 11.4%.

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