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The state lies beneath the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas and is bounded on the north by Bhutan (the land of the Bhutiyas) and Arunachal Pradesh (formerly known as NEFA and the land of Adis, Dafflas, Miris, Mishimis and Appatanis---all hill tribes of mongolian origin); to the east by Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Manipur (an ancient Hindu kingdom); to the south by Mizoram (the land of Mizos) and Meghalaya (the land of Khasis with Shillong, "the Scotland of east" as her capital); and to the west by Bangladesh and Tripura (the native land of the Tripuri tribes of Mongolian origin). Except for a narrow corridor running through the foothills of the Himalayas that connects the state with West Bengal, Assam is almost entirely isolated from India. The capital of Assam, is Dispur, a suburb of Guwahati in 1972.

Surrounded by a ring of blue hills, Assam has two largest valleys, the Brahmaputra Valley and the Barak Valley where the main body of the people of Assam live, the people with history dating back to ancient vedic era. In ancient days, Assam was known as Kamrup where according to legend, Kamdeva, the Hindu God of love was reborn. The state capital of Assam, Guwahati, known in ancient time as Pragjyotishpura or The Eastern City of Light, was the capital of Kamrup which finds frequent mention in the Mahabharata and other Sanskrit epics and historical lores.

Assam comprises an area of 78,523 square kilometers (30,318 square miles). Except for the districts of Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills, Assam is generally composed of plains and river valleys. It can be divided into three principal geographical regions: the Brahmaputra Valley in the north; the Barak Plain in the south; and the Mikir and Cachar Hills that divide the two regions.

The Brahmaputra Valley is the dominant physical feature of Assam. It enters Assam near Sadiya at the extreme northeast corner and runs westward for nearly 450 miles before turning south to enter the plains of Bangladesh. The river valley, rarely more than 50 miles wide, is studded with numerous low, isolated hills and ridges that abruptly rise from the plain. The vally is surrounded on all sides, except the west, by mountains and is intersected by many streams and rivulets that flow from the neighboring hills to empty into the Brahmaputra.

Earthquakes are a common phenomenon in Assam. In modern times, the most important Assamese earthquakes have been those that occurred in 1897 with the Shillong Plateau as the epicenter; in 1930 with Dhubri as the epicenter; and 1950, with Rima in Tibet at the Arunachal border as the epicenter. The 1950 earthquake is considered to have been one of the most disastrous earthquakes in history. It created heavy landslides that blocked the course of many hill streams.

The average temperature is moderate, about 84 degrees F (29 degress C) in the hottest month of August. The average valley temperature in January is 61 degrees F (16 degrees C). In this season, the climate of the valley is marked by heavy fogs and a little rain. Assam does not have the normal Indian hot, dry season. Some rain occurs from March onwards, but the real force of the monsoon winds is faced from June onward. Rainfall in Assam ranks among the highest in the world; its annual rainfall varies from 70 inches in the west to 120 inches per year in the east. Large concentrated during the months from June to September, it often results in widespread destructive floods.

Assam's forests cover about 20 percent of the total area. The Kaziranga National Park, the stronghold of the fast-disappearing great Indian one-horned rhinoceros, is its most famous wildlife refuge. The most important forest products are timber and bamboo, firewood and lac (the source of shellac). There are about 74 species of timber, of which two-thirds are commercially exploited. The forests are inhabited by wild animals such as elephants, tigers, deer and wild pigs.

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