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Process Models.

Static models, Dynamic models, Step response methods-Two parameter model, three parameter model, four parameter model, Models for oscillatory systems Methods of moments. Disturbance models-measuring noise characteristics

Controller Principles

Process characteristics -process equations, process loads, process lag, self regulation, Control system parameters - error, variable range, control parameter range, control lag, dead time , cycling

Controller modes:

       Discontinuous-two position, multi- position, floating control

       Continuous - proportional, integral, derivative & composite modes

       Control paradigms: cascade control, feed forward network,

Neural networks- basic concepts(neuron) feed forward network, learning & applications), Fuzzy control(elements of fuzzy logic, fuzzy controller fuzzy inference, defuzzification)

Tuning of Controllers

Criteria for controller tuning - Specified decay ratio, minimum integral of absolute error ( IAE ) minimum integral of time and absolute error( ITAE )

Closed loop response methods - ultimate method, damped oscillation method

Process reaction curve ad open loop tuning.

Programmable Logic Controllers

ISA logic symbols, Ladder diagrams, Relay sequencers, Programmable controllers- functional diagram, operation, programming.

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