& CMOS logic families, comparison of operational characteristics,static
input-output characteristics, compatibility of logic families, TTL-CMOS
interface requirements, derating of manufactures drive specifications, special
& load considerations, increasing drive capability.
circuits, operation of two input TTL NAND gate.
circuits, FET equivalent circuits , dynamic power dissipation, input protection,
latchup. Noise margin of TTL & CMOS families.
currents, Transient internal switching currents in TTL & CMOS devices,
transient load currents, inductance, inductance of device package pins, ground
bounce, inductance of component power connections, technique for minimising
inductance & transient current effects.
distributions, component power connections, voltage drop across a plane, power
supply to motherboard connections, decoupling capacitors, techniques for
minimising transient current effects in power distribution systems.
considerations for synchronous systems, synchronous design practices.
distributions, General considerations, clock distribution categories.
interconnections & signal quality. Signal interconnection categories,
physical & electrical interconnections, miscellaneous interconnections.
Signal response, dynamic loads, static loading limits crosstalks, transmission
timing. Device delays, circuit board interconnection delays, backpanel
interconnection delays, unit to unit interconnection timing, examples of worst
case timing analysis. Reset signals , recommended reset signal generator, reset
signal distribution, reset signal phasing, loading & timing, reset signal
generation & distribution techniques.
inputs, unused TTL & CMOS input, pullup resistors, additional sources of
current-limited pullup or pulldown voltages, paralleling inputs
precision circuits & low noise techniques. Precision versus dynamic range
,error budget, precision amplifier with automatic null offset, component errors,
amplifier input & output errors
Amplifier noise. Origin & kinds of noise, signal to noise ratio & noise figure, transistor amplifier voltage & current noise, low noise design with transistors, FET noise, selecting low noise transistors, noise in differential & feedback amplifiers, noise measurements and sources. Measurements without and with noise source, noise and signal sources, interference, signal grounds, grounding between instruments
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