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Electronic Voltmeters : Principles of operation, advantages over conventional type analogue voltmeters, factors involved in selection of voltmeters, basic voltmeter, differential voltmeter, peak reading, average reading, true R.M.S. reading, sampling type, FET voltmeters, sensitivity considerations and calculations.

Digital Voltmeters : Principle of operation and description of various types.

Frequency Meters : Analogue - Schematic and operational details, Digital frequency meter,

Time interval measurements, frequency ratio measurements.

Phase Meters : Phase measurement by voltage addition method, balanced modulation type, phase meter using flip flop, advantages and limitations of each type. Digital phase meters for entire A.F. range and their limitations.

Oscilloscopes : Block diagram study of CRO, description of panel, layout and implementation of controls, Requirements of time base, triggered time base, delayed time base.

External triggering etc. Lissajous patterns, circular time base, intensity modulation, velocity modulation. Use of these in phase and frequency measurement. Frequency time base. Wobbler scope and its application. Dual trace and multi trace, double beam, sampling, storage and digital readout oscilloscopes. Use of CRO in square wave testing of amplifiers, tracing of diode and transistor characteristics.

Signal Generators : Requirements of a good laboratory type signal generator. A.F. signal generator, beat frequency oscillator and its advantages

<<2002 Samsoft Technologies>>

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